Status of Ethnic Minorities Report

"The Status of Ethnic Minorities in Hong Kong, 1997 to 2014" was commissioned by The Zubin Foundation's Shalini Mahtani and conducted by Puja Kapai, Director at the University of Hong Kong's Centre for Comparative and Public and Law.

"The Status of Ethnic Minorities in Hong Kong, 1997 to 2014" is the first research on ethnic minorities across all areas of life, from crime and health to employment and education, and has been compiled, synthesized and interpreted by author Puja Kapai. What is unique too about this research is that two ethnic minority women, Shalini Mahtani and Puja Kapai, are behind it.

The research presented in this Report is drawn from existing data and research material that is publicly available. In some circumstances, the data pertains to ethnic minority groups more broadly and includes data of groups in addition to those that have been identified as the focus for this Report. In some areas, where limited data disaggregated by ethnicity is available, the data referenced is provided to offer a general impression and should be viewed with this important caveat in mind. It may, in such instances, be unreliable to draw generalised conclusions from the limited data. However, it has been included to highlight that more specific data disaggregated by ethnicity, gender, age and other variables is desirable to facilitate policy development and focused interventions. These are data gaps that we recognise and have identified through this report. We encourage the government and other researchers to identify additional data gaps and supplement with research of their own.


  1. Cover Page and Inside Page
  2. Table of Contents
  3. Acknowledgements
  4. Foreword
  5. Introduction
  6. The Rights of Ethnic Minorities Under the Law- Equality and Non-discrimination
  7. Key Demographic Data
  8. Chapter 1: Perceptions and Self-Perceptions
  9. Chapter 2: Language, Integration, Identity, and Belonging
  10. Chapter 3: The Education of Ethnic Minorities in Hong Kong
  11. Chapter 4: The Employment of Ethnic Minorities
  12. Chapter 5: Poverty and Social Welfare
  13. Chapter 6: Marriage, Family, and Domestic Violence
  14. Chapter 7: Healthcare needs of Ethnic Minorities
  15. Chapter 8: Crime and Law Enforcement
  16. Key Observations and Recommendations
  17. Bibliography


  1. Click here to download all chapters


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