Advocate (Israel Bar)
Bachelor of Laws (LL.B), 1968, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Post Graduate Diploma in International Law, 1973, University of Manchester
Master of Laws (LL.M), 1978, Victoria University of Wellington
Doctor of Laws (LL.D), 1987, University of South Africa
One Country, Two International Legal Personalities: The Case of Hong Kong (Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 1997).
International Environmental Law and “Asian Values”: Legal Norms and Cultural Influences (Vancouver, B.C, Canada: University of British Columbia Press, 2004).
‘Refugees and Displaced Persons: the Hong Kong Experience’ in J Patrnogic, ed., Current Problems in the International Protection of Refugees and Displaced Persons (San Remo: Institute of Humanitarian Law, 1981), 96-105.
‘Quasi-Institutionalisation of the Refugee Problem in Countries of Temporary Refuge’ in G J L Coles, ed., The Promotion, Dissemination and Teaching of Fundamental Human Rights of Refugees (Geneva: UNHCR, 1982), 91-109.
‘Freedom of Association and Assembly in Hong Kong’ in R I Wacks, ed., Civil Liberties in Hong Kong (Hong Kong, Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press, 1988), 153-185.
‘Foreign, External and Defence Affairs’ in P Wesley-Smith & A Chen, eds., The Basic Law and Hong Kong’s Future (Hong Kong, Singapore, Malaysia: Butterworths, 1988), 248-268.
‘Asylum in Hong Kong’* in G Melander et al, eds., Asylum in Asia (Sweden: Roul Wallenberg Institute of Human Rights and Humanitarian Law, 1989), 1-26.
*Published as a booklet
‘International Human Rights Law and Domestic Hong Kong Law’ in R I Wacks, ed., Hong Kong’s Bill of Rights: Problems & Prospects (Hong Kong: Faculty of Law, University of Hong Kong, 1990), 25-38.
‘Peaceful Assembly’ in R I Wacks, ed., Human Rights in Hong Kong (Hong Kong, Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press, 1991), 410-439.
‘”Mildly Progressive Pragmatism” – Hong Kong’s Synthesis of British, Chinese and Asian Approaches to the Refugee Problem’ in M Smith, ed., International Law & Refugees in the Asia-Pacific Region (Melbourne: The Asian Law Centre and the Australian Institute of International Affairs, National Research Centre, 1991), 35-65.
‘Hong Kong’s International Personality: Issues and Implications’ in W H Angus, Canada-Hong Kong: Some Legal Considerations (Toronto: Joint Centre for Asia Pacific Studies, 1992), 14-30.
‘Hong Kong’s Quest for Autonomy: A Theoretical Reinforcement’ in R I Wacks, ed., Hong Kong and 1997: Essays in Legal Theory (Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press Law Series, 1993), 307-341.
‘Agenda 21 – Its Application in the Region’ in LAWASIA’93, Asia on the Leap – the Role of Law (Sri Lanka: The Bar Association of Sri Lanka, 1993), S5 [Environmental Law], 61-68.
‘Applicability of International Environmental Law to Hong Kong’ in G N Heilbronn, ed., Environmental Law in Hong Kong: Problems & Prospects (Hong Kong: Faculty of Law, University of Hong Kong, 1993), 87-104.
‘The Internationalization of International Law in Hong Kong’ in G A Postiglione & J T H Tang, eds., Hong Kong’s Reunion with China: The Global Dimension (New York: M E Sharpe & Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 1997), 147-168.
‘Managing the Transfer of Sovereignty Over Hong Kong: The Case for Continuity of Treaties’ in Beatrice Leung & Joseph Cheng, eds., Hong Kong SAR: In Pursuit of Domestic and International Order (New York, London: M E Sharpe & Hong Kong: The Chinese University Press, 1997), 161-176.
‘Enforcing International Environmental Law in the Asia-Pacific Region’ in A Shapira, ed., Tel Aviv University Studies in Law, Vol 14 (Tel Aviv: The Cegla Institute for Comparative and Private International Law, 1998), 187-222.
‘International Environmental Law: How Green is the Future?’ in Raymond Wacks, ed., The New Legal Order in Hong Kong (Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 1999), 627-648.
‘Autonomy and Human Rights Concerns in Post-Handover Hong Kong’ in Joseph W Dellapenna and Patrick M Norton, eds., China and Hong Kong in Legal Transition. Commercial and Humanitarian Issues (American Bar Association, 2000), 163-175.
‘The Principle of Public Participation: A Selective Asia-Pacific Perspective’ in N. Schrijverand F Weiss, eds., International Law and Sustainable Development: Principles and Practice (Leiden/Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2004), 607-630.
'Endemic Institutional Fragility in the Face of Dynamic Economic Integration in Asia: The Case of Transboundary Pollution in Hong Kong’ in R. Buckley, R. Hu and D. Arner, eds., East Asian Economic Integration: Law, Trade & Finance (Cheltenham, UK/Northampton, USA: Edward Edgar Publishing Ltd, 2011), pp. 49-80 [with Dr M Mushkat]
'External Affairs’ in J. Chan and C.L. Lim, eds., Law of the Hong Kong Constitution (Hong Kong: Sweet & Maxwell, 2011), pp. 75-114 [with C.L. Lim]
'Economic Development, Environmental Preservation and International Policy Learning in China: Venturing Beyond Transnational Legal Process Theory’ in Guanghua Yu, ed., Rethinking Law and Development: The Chinese Experience (Routledge, 2012, forthcoming)
‘Interstate Behaviour During an International Crisis: Structural Analysis of the Situation in the Middle East in 1967’ 10 International Problems 46-56 (1971).
‘The Geneva Convention of 1949 in Light of the Military Occupation of Territories Held by Israel – Some Observations’ 12 International Problems 29-34 (1973).
‘Action Against International Terrorism’ 3 New Zealand International Review 21-25 (1978).
‘Refugees in Hong Kong: Legal Provisions and Policies’ 10 Hong Kong Law Journal 169-181 (1980).
‘Technical Impediments on the Way to a Universal Definition of International Terrorism’ 20 Indian Journal of International Law 448-471 (1980).
‘Balancing Freedom of Expression and Public Order in Hong Kong’ 11 Hong Kong Law Journal 62-75 (1981).
‘Public Order (Amendment) Ordinance’, a legislative note 11 Hong Kong Law Journal 117-119 (1981).
‘The Growing Use of Statistical Analysis in Judicial Decision-Making: An overview’ 8 Journal of Malaysian and Comparative Law 121-145 (1981). Reprinted in 28 Far Eastern Law Review 37-58 [with Dr M Mushkat].
‘Hong Kong as a Country of Temporary Refuge – An Interim Analysis’ 12 Hong Kong Law Journal 157-178 (1982).
‘Human Rights Under Temporary Refuge’ 62 Revue de Droit International de Science Diplomatiques et Politiques (The International Law Review) 169-183 (1984).
‘The Prisoner’s Dilemma as an Instrument of Social Control’ 10 Philosophy and Social Action: An Interdisciplinary – International Quarterly of Concerned Philosophers for Social Action 145-152 [with Dr M Mushkat].
‘The Legal Coordination Problem’ 61 International Review of the Philosophy of Law 638-646 (1984) [with Dr M Mushkat]
‘The Transition from British to Chinese Rule in Hong Kong: A Discussion of Some Salient International Legal Issues’ 14 Denver Journal of International Law and Policy 171-206 (1986).
‘Freedom as a Common Access Good in Legal Analysis’ 37 Archives of the Philosophy of Law 321-331 (1986) [with Dr M Mushkat].
‘Is War Ever Justifiable? A Comparative Survey’ 9 Loyola of Los Angeles International and Comparative Law Journal 227-317 (1987).
‘Who May Wage War? A Re-examination of an Old/New Question’ 2 American University Journal of International Law and Policy 97-151 (1987).
‘A Comparative Study of the Internal Application of Treaties: A Critique’ 15 Korean Journal of Comparative Law 178-185 (1987).
‘The International Legal Status of Hong Kong under Post-Transitional Rule’ 10 Houston Journal of International Law 1-24 (1987).
‘Jus in Bello Revisited’ 21 Comparative and International Law Journal of Southern Africa 1-51 (1988).
‘Legal Education as Hierarchical Reinforcement: A Critique of Duncan Kennedy’s View of Legal Training’ 45 International Review of the Philosophy of Law 132-137 (1988).
‘How Useful is the Concept of Just War in International Law? 66 Revue de Droit International de Sciences Diplomatiques et Politiques (The International Law Review) 163-190 (1988).
‘International Environmental Law in the Asia-Pacific Region: Recent Developments’ 20 California Western International Law Journal 21-40 (1989).
‘Refuge in Hong Kong’ 4 International Journal of Refugee Law 449-480 (1989).
‘When War May Justifiably be Waged? An Analysis of Historical and Contemporary Legal Perspectives’ 15 Brooklyn Journal of International Law 1-93 (1989).
‘The Daya Bay Nuclear Plant Project in the Light of International Environmental Law’ UCLA Pacific Basin Law Journal 87-113 (1990).
‘The Trees, the Bees and the Factories (Hong Kong’s Environmental Protection in Light of International Environmental Law)’ The Lawyer 32-36 (1990).
‘British/Hong Kong Nationality – Discrimination or Another Example of Political Pragmatism?’ 30 International Problems, Society and Politics 49-58 (1991).
‘Hong Kong as an International Legal Person’ 6 Emory International Law Review 105-170 (1992).
‘Balancing Western Legal Concepts, Asian Attitudes and Practical Difficulties – A Critical Examination of Hong Kong’s Response to the Refugee Problem’ 1 Asian Yearbook of International Law 1991 45-112 (1993).
‘Jurisdictional Issues in a “Highly Autonomous Region” – the Case of Hong Kong’ 42 International and Comparative Law Quarterly 11-47 (1993).
‘Environmental Problems and Policy Response in Hong Kong: An Evaluation from an International Legal Perspective’ 2 Asian Yearbook of International Law 1992 113-126 (1994).
‘Environmental Sustainability – A Perspective from the Asia-Pacific Region’ 27 UBC Law Review 153-187 (1993).
‘The Relationship between Environment and Trade: An Asian Pacific Perspective’ 8 Foreign Relations Journal 63-74 (1993).
‘Implementation of the Comprehensive Plan of Action [CPA] in Hong Kong: Does it Measure Up to International Standards?’ 5 International Journal of Refugee Law 559-579 (1993).
‘The International Legal Personality of Macao’ 24 Hong Kong Law Journal 328-341 (1994).
‘Mandatory Repatriation of Asylum Seekers: Is the Legal Norm of Non-Refoulement “Dead”?’ 25 Hong Kong Law Journal 42-51 (1995).
‘The Joint Declaration and the CFA Agreement’ 26 Hong Kong Law Journal 277-280 (1996).
‘Hong Kong and the Succession of Treaties’ 46 The International and Comparative Law Quarterly 181-201 (1997).
‘Scrapping Hong Kong Legislation: An International Law perspective’ 27 Hong Kong Law Journal 12-15 (1997)
‘International Law in HKSAR Courts’ 28 California Western International Law Journal 353-377 (1998).
‘The “Non-Recognition” of Hong Kong by US Federal Courts’ 6 Asia Pacific Law Review 45-52 (1998).
‘The Future of Hong Kong’s International Legal Personality: Does International Law Matter? A Post-Handover Snapshot’ 22 Southern Illinois University Law Journal 275-292 (1998).
‘Public Participation in Environmental Law Making: A Comment on the International Legal Framework and the Asia-Pacific Perspective’ 1 Chinese Journal of International Law 185-224 (2002).
‘Globalization and the International Environmental Legal Response: The Asia Context’ 4 Asian-Pacific Law & Policy Journal 49-81 (2003).
‘Culture and International Law: Universalism v. Relativism’ 6 Singapore Journal of International and Comparative Law, 1028-1042 (2002).
‘Potential Impacts of China’s WTO Accession on its Approach to the Trade-Environment Balancing Act’ 2 Chinese Journal of International Law, 227-264 (2003).
‘The Political Economy of International Legal Compliance: Pre-1997 Predictions and post-1997 Realities in Hong Kong’ 10 U.C. Davis Journal of International Law & Policy 501-518 (2004) [with Dr M Mushkat]
‘The Political Economy of Constitutional Conflict in Hong Kong’ 11 Tilburg Foreign Law Review 756-781 (2004) [with Dr M Mushkat].
‘The Political Economy of Constitutional Reform in an Externally-Constrained Environment: China’s Shadow Over Hong Kong and Strategies to Minimize It’ 30 Journal of Malaysian and Comparative Law 15-36 (2003; published in 2005) [with Dr M Mushkat]
‘International Law and Game Theory: A Marriage of Convenience or Strange Bedfellows?’ 2 New Zealand Yearbook of International Law 101-126(2005) [With Dr M Mushkat]
‘The Political Economy of Recasting the Constitutional Debate in Hong Kong’ 19 International Journal of Applied Philosophy 63-72 (2005) [With Dr M Mushkat]
‘Conversationalism, Constitutional Economics and Bicameralism: Strategies for Political Reform in Hong Kong’ 13 Asian Journal of Political Science 22-49 (2005) [with Dr M Mushkat]
‘Economic Growth, Democracy, The Rule of Law, and China’s Future’ 29 Fordham International Law Journal 229-259 (2005) [with Dr M Mushkat]
‘The Political Economy of Non-Majoritarian Institutions: Constitutional Implications for Hong Kong’ 19 Journal of East Asian Affairs 143-164 (2005) [with Dr M Mushkat]
‘Political Economy of Governance and Public Trust: The Promise of Autonomy and Post-1997 Hong Kong Inertia’ 37 International Quarterly for Asian Studies 87-117 (2006) [With Dr M Mushkat]
‘Hong Kong’s Exercise of External Autonomy: A Multi-Faceted Appraisal’ 55 International & Comparative Law Quarterly 945-962 (2006)
‘The Transfer of Property Rights from the Public to the Private Sector in Hong Kong: A Critical Assessment’ 35 Global Economic Review 445-461 (2006) [With Dr M Mushkat]
‘The Political Economy of Sovereignty Revisited: A Re-Examination of the Public Choice Model in Light of China’s Accession to the World Trade Organization’ 7 Asper Review of International Business and Trade Law 115-149 (2007) [With Dr M Mushkat]
‘The Political Economy of Loose Regulation: Modernity Meets Tradition in Hong Kong’ 7 International Journal of Regulation and Governance 101-145 (2007) [With Dr M Mushkat]
‘The Allocation of Ultra Scarce Property Rights in Hong Kong – A Policy Evaluation’ 39 International Quarterly for Asian Studies 137-161 (2008) [With Dr M Mushkat].
‘Implementing Environmental Law in Transitional Settings: The Chinese Experience’ 18 University of Southern California Interdisciplinary Law Journal 45-94 (2008).
‘Contextualizing Environmental Human Rights: A Relativist Perspective’ 26 Pace Environmental Law Review 119-177 (2009).
‘The Political Economy of Chinese “Federalism”: New Analytical Directions’ 38 Global Economic Review 13-28 (2009) [With Dr M Mushkat]
‘The Political Economy of Hong Kong’s “Open Skies” Legal Regime: An Empirical and Theoretical Exploration’ 10 San Diego International Law Journal 381-438 (2009) [With Dr M Mushkat]
‘Incomplete Internationalization and Compliance with Human Rights Law: A Reply to Ryan Goodman and Derek Jinks’ 20 The European Journal of International Law 437-442 (2009).
‘The Anatomy of Corruption in China: A Political Economy Perspective’ 7 International Journal of Civil Society Law 78-86 (2009) [with Dr M Mushkat]
‘The Institutional Foundations of Environmental Governance Regimes: The Implications of Chinese Practices’ 9 International Journal of Regulation and Governance 99-120 (2009)[with Dr M Mushkat]
‘Dissecting International Legal Compliance: An Unfinished Odyssey’ 38 Denver Journal of International Law & Policy 161-191 (2009)
‘The Economic Dimension of the Hong Kong Basic Law: An Analytical Overview’ 7 New Zealand journal of Public and International Law 273-316 (2009)[with Dr M Mushkat]
‘Compliance with International Environmental Regimes: Chinese Lessons’ 34 William & Mary Environmental Law & Policy Review 493-542 (2010)
‘Corporate Social Responsibility, International Law and Business Economics: Convergences and Divergences’ 12 Oregon International Law Review 55-76 (2010)
‘The Economics of Environmental Policy Implementation: Chinese Insights’ 53 Economics and Policy of Energy and the Environment 105-127 (2010) [with Dr M Mushkat]
‘The Political Economy of Hong Kong’s Transboundary Pollution: The Challenge of Effective Governance’ 9 Journal of International Trade Law and Policy 175-192 (2010) [with Dr M Mushkat]*
*Chosen as an “Outstanding Paper Award Winner” at the Emerald Press Literati Network Awards for Excellence 2011.
‘Environmental Governance in China: Taking Policy Instruments Seriously’ 53(2) Economics and Policy of Energy and the Environment 85-101 (2010) [with Dr M Mushkat]
‘China’s Compliance with International law: What Has Been Learned and the Gaps Remaining’ 20 Pacific Rim Law & Policy Journal 41-69 (2011)
‘The Political Economy of State Accession to International Legal Regimes: A Reassessment of the China-World Trade Organization Nexus’ 10 Journal of International Trade Law and Policy 5-28 (2011) [with Dr M Mushkat]
‘Assessing the Effectiveness of Environmental Governance Regimes: Remaining Gaps’ 12 Interdisciplinary Environmental Review 166-189 (2011) [with Dr M Mushkat]
‘The Development of Environmental Governance Regimes: A Chinese-Inspired Reconstruction’ 2 Washington & Lee Journal of Energy, Climate, and the Environment 1-49 (2011)
‘The Dynamics of International Legal Regime Formation: the Sino-British Joint Declaration on the Question of Hong Kong Revisited’ 22 European Journal of International Law 1119-1144 (2011)
‘The Dynamics of International Legal Regime Formation: The Sino-British Joint Declaration on the Question of Hong Kong Revisited: A Rejoinder to Kevin Tan’ 22 European Journal of International Law 1149-1152 (2011)
‘Regime Transformation and Environmental Policy Innovation in China’ 12 Interdisciplinary Environmental Review 349-371 (2011) [with Dr M Mushkat]
‘State Reputation and Compliance with International Law: Looking Through a Chinese Lens’ 10 Chinese Journal of International Law 703-737 (2011)
‘International Legal Compliance as a Rational Act: Theoretical Extensions and Chinese Realities’ 20 Transnational Law & Contemporary Problems Journal 634-676 (2012)
‘The Political Economy of Corruption in China: The Principal-Agent dimension’ 2 International Journal of Public Law and Policy 263-286 (2012) [with Dr M Mushkat]
‘Creating Regional Environmental Governance Regimes: The Implications of Southeast Asian Responses to Transboundary Haze Pollution’ 4 Washington & Lee Journal of Energy, Climate and the Environment (2012)(forthcoming)
‘Wither the Two-Level game Model of International Legal Compliance? A Chinese Roadmap’ International Journal of Public Law and Policy (2012)(forthcoming)
‘The Political Economy of China’s Regulatory State: A Reappraisal’ BYU Journal of Public Law (2012)(forthcoming) [with Dr M Mushkat]
‘Transboundary Risk Governance: An Asian-Centred Analytical Recalibration’ Syracuse Journal of International Law and Commerce (2012) (forthcoming)
‘Chinese Border Disputes Revisited: Toward a Better Interdisciplinary Synthesis’ Richmond Journal of Global Law and Business (2012)(forthcoming)
‘Non-Democratic State Learning of Universal Human Rights: Reconfiguring Chinese Patterns’ Temple International & Comparative Law Journal (2013)(forthcoming)
Book Reviews/Review Articles
Kamenka & A Erh-Soon Tay, eds., Justice (Edward Arnold, 1979) 10 Hong Kong Law Journal 252-256 (1980).
E Kamenka & A Erh-Soon Tay, eds., Human Rights (Edward Arnold, 1979) 11 Hong Kong Law Journal 282-288 (1981).
G S Goodwin-Gill, The Refugee in International Law (Clarendon Press, 1983) 14 Hong Kong Law Journal 282-288 (1984).
J G Merrills, International Dispute Settlement (Sweet & Maxwell, 1984) 15 Hong Kong Law Journal 126-132 (1985).
Y Dinstein, Models of Autonomy (Transaction Books, 1981) 16 Hong Kong Law Journal 166-174 (1986).
E Beyerly, Public International Law. A Guide to Information Sources (Mansell, 1990) Australian Library Review Reviews Supplement 202-3 (1992).
L Henkin, et al., Right v Might: International Law and the Use of Force (Council on Foreign Relations, 1991) 1 Asia Pacific Law Review 126-131 (1992).
Philippe Sands, ed., Greening International Law (Earthscan Publications, 1993) 27 Development and Change 184-185 (1996).
‘When Politics Shield Criminals’ South China Morning Post, 16 November 1978.
‘Lawmakers, not the Law to Blame’ South China Morning Post, 8 December 1978.
‘Policemen in the Wrong Court’ South China Morning Post, 14 December 1978.
‘Nationality Law Outside Scope of Human Rights Court’ South China Morning Post, 27 October 1981.
‘Rethinking in Legal Terms’ Hong Kong Standard, 2 December 1996.
‘Clearing Up a Few Nationality Technicalities’ South China Morning Post, 9 December 1996.
‘Judge Failed to Recognise Territory’s Autonomy’ South China Morning Post, 24 January 1997.
‘The Wrong Course Over the Bill of Rights’ South China Morning Post, 30 January 1997.
‘A Viable Opposition will be Needed’ International Herald Tribune, 27 June 1997.
Other Publications (On-line, Occasional Papers, etc)
‘Global Order and Regional Order - What Order?’ (August 2001), http://www.isanet.org/paperarchive.htm.
‘Fair Trial’ as a Precondition to Rendition: An International Legal Perspective (Hong Kong: Centre for Comparative and Public Law, Faculty of Law, University of Hong Kong, July 2002).
[with J Tang, et al.] Positioning Hong Kong as “Asia’s World city”: A Multi-Dimensional Strategy -- A Consultancy Study on Hong Kong’s External Relations Strategy for the Central Planning Unit, the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government (Hong Kong: The Institute for China and Global Development, The University of Hong Kong, June 2003).
[with Kelley Loper], Refugee Protection in the Asia and Pacific Region – An External Study of Refugee Law & Practice in Hong Kongprepared for UNHCR Sub-Office Hong Kong, February 2005.