All states are challenged by the need to protect national security while maintaining the rule of law, but the issue is particularly complex in Hong Kong. Now governed by China under the rubric “one country, two systems”, Hong Kong has a strong tradition of the Rule of Law – a key feature that distinguishes it from China. However, concerns over whether Hong Kong can maintain this distinctiveness in light of apparently-increasing Chinese security advances are intensifying, partly due to renewed calls for the territory to fulfil its constitutional duty of enacting national security legislation, and uncertainties over the human rights guarantees therein when China’s 50-year commitment to Hong Kong’s autonomy expires in 2047. This project assembles leading experts on Hong Kong, national security, and comparative public law to explore both the risks of introducing security legislation in Hong Kong and the region’s sources of resilience. It presents a forward-looking perspective on the rule of law in Hong Kong, illustrating how it may succeed in resisting pressure to advance China’s security interests through repressive law.